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Delegating on the user's behalf#

Delegation is one of the multiple ways in which the Flare blockchain rewards participants of the ecosystem. In particular, delegation allows token holders to put their stake behind an FTSO data provider to increase its relative weight (See this FTSO blog post for more information). In return, each time a data provider submits useful information it shares its reward with all the token holders that delegated to it.

The Delegation Guide details this process for users. However, since Exchanges keep user's tokens, only Exchanges can perform delegation. If you are an Exchange and want to offer your users the ability to earn rewards by delegation, this page summarizes the process and explains how to perform it on the user's behalf.


Flare (and Songbird) accounts can delegate any percentage they choose of their tokens to one or two FTSO data providers.

This limitation means that, if your Exchange keeps all users' tokens in a single wallet (as described in the Architecture of an Exchange page), you cannot give your users the option to select the data provider they want to delegate to: The wallet containing all tokens can only delegate to one (or two) data providers.

Keeping this in mind, this page explains how to delegate the users' tokens and collect the rewards.

Reward Epochs

Delegation works in 7-day periods called Reward Epochs which start every Saturday at around 8:40AM UTC. As shown later, several features of the delegation mechanism are timed according to these epochs.

Selecting a data provider#

It is the Exchange that must select the FTSO data provider upon which to delegate, so the first step is to choose the one you are most confident to provide consistently good data (and therefore higher rewards).

The list of available data providers for the current reward epoch can be retrieved from the VoterWhitelister smart contract, method getFtsoWhitelistedPriceProviders (#4). There exist a number of websites like or ftso-signal-providers that display this information in a far more convenient way.


The available data providers are the ones that had the most voting power during the previous reward epoch.

Bear in mind that delegations can be changed at any time, but they are only taken into account once per reward epoch, at a random point roughly in the 42h prior to a new reward epoch starting. Therefore, depending on the time it is submitted, a new delegation might not take effect until 7 days later, and any reward might not be collected until 7 days later than that.

Delegation Process#

Delegation process summary

Delegation process summary.
  1. Obtain WSGB tokens

    The native token of the Songbird Network is the Songbird (SGB), whereas voting power is staked on a data provider using the Wrapped Songbird (WSGB) token.

    One WSGB token can be obtained for each SGB token without cost (except gas fees) using the WNat contract's deposit method (#7).

    WSGB tokens can be "unwrapped" back to SGB tokens at any time using the WNat contract's withdraw method (#28).

    The SGB tokens are locked inside the WNat contract and cannot be used until the WSGB tokens are unwrapped.

  2. Delegate

    Choose what percentage of your total WSGB you want to delegate to each data provider (up to two). Should your WSGB balance change, the delegated amounts are automatically adjusted.

    Delegation is performed through the WNat contract too, using the delegate method (#5). You need to provide the address of the chosen data provider and the percentage of your total WSGB you want to delegate in bips (hundredths of 1%, so 100% is 10’000 bips).

    After a successful invocation of this method, delegation is complete. The following reward epoch will take your delegated tokens into account when computing your selected data provider's weight. If the data provider submits useful data and garners any rewards, you will be able to claim your share in the subsequent reward epochs.

  3. Claim the rewards

    Each time a data provider produces valuable information all accounts that delegated to it earn a reward proportional to the amount they delegated.

    These rewards accumulate in the FtsoRewardManager contract, from where you can collect them once the reward epoch is finished, using the claimReward method (#3).

    Rewards can be claimed for several epochs at once, which saves transaction fees, so the claimReward method requires the list of epochs to claim for. To get the list of epochs with pending rewards you can use the getEpochsWithUnclaimedRewards method (#11).

    Unclaimed rewards expire after 90 days!

    For security reasons, the FtsoRewardManager contract contains a limited amount of tokens and is replenished periodically. If you are unable to claim your rewards because the contract is empty, please try again the next day. This might happen when all delegators claim their rewards in a short period of time, so it is usually better to avoid claiming right when the reward epoch finishes.

Last update: 2022-08-01
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